**Vernier Caliper Viva Questions and Answers**

Ans: It is the smallest measurement that can be made with
the given instrument

**(ii) What is meant by least count of a vernier calipers?**

Ans: It is the smallest length that can be measured with the
instrument and it is equal to the difference between a main scale division and
a vernier scale division.

**(iii) The least count of a vernier is 0.001 cm. What is the order upto which it can measure length accurately?**

Ans: It can measure accurately up to 10-3 cm.

**(iv) What part of the vernier calipers is the vernier scale?**

Ans: The sliding scale along the main scale is called
vernier scale.

**(v) Which is the instrument you will use to measure the internal and external diameter of a tube?**
Ans: Vernier calipers

**(vi) Apparatus of Vernier Calipers**Ans: The vernier calipers, the given cylinder and the metallic rectangular block. The vernier calipers consists of a main scale and a small subscale called vernier scale. The main scale is usually graduated in mm. The vernier scale is a sub-scale which can slide along the main scale and can be fixed at any position with the help of a screw. Usually there will be 10 divisions on the vernier scale which are equivalent to 9 mm on the main scale. The main scale and the vernier scale are provided with jaws at their ends. When the jaws are in contact, the zero of the vernier coincides with the zero of the main scale.

**(vii) Theory of Vernier Calipers**Ans: When a body is gripped between the jaws, the main scale reading (M.S.R) is the reading on the main scale just before the zero mark of the vernier scale and the vernier scale reading (V.S.R) is the number of the vernier division which coincides with some division of the main scale.

If L. C is the least count of the vernier calipers,

Dimension measured = M.S.R + fraction = M.S.R + (V.S.R x L.C)

Volume of a cylinder = πr

^{2}l;
where r is the radius and l is the length of the cylinder.

Volume of the rectangular block = lbh;

where l, b and h are length, breadth and height of the
block.

If r is the internal radius and h is the depth of the
calorimeter,

Internal volume of the calorimeter = πr

^{2}h

*(viii) Procedure* of Vernier Calipers

**To find the least count (LC) of the vernier calipers**

The least count is the difference between a main scale
division and a vernier scale division. if (n — 1) main scale divisions are
divided into n vernier scale divisions then,

Least count = 1/n x 1 m.s.d

**(a) To measure the dimensions of the cylinder**

To find the length of the cylinder, it is gripped lengthwise
between the jaws. The main scale reading (M.S.R) immediately before the zero of
the vernier, and the division of the vernier (V.S.R) coinciding with any of the
main scale division are noted.

The length of the cylinder, l = M.S.R. + a fraction = M.S.R.
+ (V.S.R x L.C)

The experiment is repeated by keeping the vernier calipers
at different positions of the cylinder and the average length is calculated.

Similarly the mean diameter of the cylinder is determined.
The radius (r) of the cylinder is calculated from its diameter.

Volume of the cylinder = πr

^{2}l**(b) To find the volume of the given rectangular block of known mass by measuring its dimensions with the vernier calipers and hence to find its density.**

The length (I), breadth (b) and the height (h) of the
rectangular block is determined as in the case of the measurement of the length
of the cylinder.

Volume of the rectangular block, V = l x b x h

If m is the mass of the block, its density, d = m/V

**(c) To find the internal radius (r), depth (h) and volume (V) of the calorimeter.**

The upper ends of the jaws are put inside the calorimeter
and open them till each of them touches the inner wall of the calorimeter. The
main scale reading (M.S.R) and the vernier scale reading (V.S.R) are noted. The
inner diameter of the calorimeter = M.S.R + (V.S.R x L.C). The experiment is
repeated keeping the projections of the jaws tightly inside the calorimeter at
different positions and the average diameter is calculated. The inner radius r
of the calorimeter is calculated from its diameter.

The end of the main scale strip is kept on the upper edge of
the calorimeter. The vernier scale is pushed over the main scale till the tip
of the pointer attached to the back of the vernier touches the bottom of the
calorimeter. The M.S.R and V.S.R are noted. The depth h of the calorimeter =
M.S.R + (V.S.R x L.C). The experiment is repeated and the average depth is
calculated.

The volume V of the calorimeter is calculated from the equation,

V = πr

^{2}h
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