# Survey Lab Viva Questions

**Survey Lab Viva Questions**

1. What is the primary object of surveying?

The
primary object of surveying is preparation of map or plan.

2. In trignometrical surveying, which parameter is taken into account?

The curvature of earth

3. What is the limiting area so that the
survey is treated as plane?

250 Km^{2}

4. What is the need of topographical
survey?

Topographical survey is used to
determine the natural features of the country like, hills, valleys, lakes,
rivers, woods etc. It is also used to determine the artificial features such as
roads, buildings, canals, railways, villages etc.

5. Describe the need of reconnaissance
survey?

The reconnaissance survey is used to
determine the feasibility and rough cost of the scheme.

6.
Why Preliminary survey is used?

It
is used to choose the best location for the work.

7.
Describe the use of engineering survey?

Engineering
survey is used for collecting data for the design of engineering works.

8. Discuss the need of location survey?

Location survey is used for setting out
the works on the ground.

9. What is the unit of solid angle?

The unit of solid angle is Steradion.

10. What you know about representative
fraction?

Representative fraction is the ratio of
map distance to the corresponding ground distance.

11. What is the maximum length of the
scale in surveying?

The length of the scale should not be
greater than 32 cm.

12. The plane scale and diagonal scale
are used for?

The plane scale is used to read two dimensions
and the diagonal scale is used to read three dimensions.

13. Define compactive scale?

Compactive scale has common
representative fraction, but which read in different measures.

14. In centesimal system, the
circumference is dived into how many parts?

400 parts’

15. In plane survey, which parameter is
ignored?

The curvature of earth

16. What is the normal rate of scale in
geographical maps?

In geographical maps, the scale is
usually 1 cm = 5 Km to 160 Km

17. What is the range of sale in
topographical map?

In topographical map, 1 cm = 0.25 Km to
2.5 Km

18. What is the range of scale in case
of location map?

1:2500 to 1:500

19. What is the scale for forest maps?

1:25000

20. The earth works scale and cross
sections for earth work are?

The earth works scale is 1:2500 and
1:500, cross sections for earth work is 1:1000.

21. Large water bodies are used in the
mapping of which survey?

Hydrographic survey.

22. The circumference is divided into
how many parts in a sexagesimal system?

In a sexagesimal system, the
circumference is divided into 360 parts.

23. The scale of 1 cm = 1 Km gives a
representative fraction of?

1/100, 000

24. The scale of
1cm = 100 Km gives a representative fraction of?

1/100,00,000

25. What is the main principle of surveying?

The main
principle of surveying is to work whole to the part.

26. Describe about Retrograde vernier?

In a retrograde vernier, the smallest
division of the vernier is longer than the smallest division of its primary
scale.

27. What is the least count of a vernier
scale?

The least count of a vernier scale is
the *value of one division of the primary
scale divided by total number of divisions of vernier scale. *

28. What are the properties of a Direct
vernier scale?

In
a vernier scale, if the graduations increase in the same direction in which
graduation of the main scale increase and the smallest division of a vernier is
shorter than the smallest division of its primary scale. then it is known as Direct vernier scale.

29. What is the small length that can be
drawn on a map?

The smallest length drawn on a map is
0.2 mm

30. Differentiate Geodetic surveys and
Cadastral surveying?

Surveyor
which are carried out to provide a national grid of control for preparation of
accurate maps of large areas are known as geodetic surveys, and the surveying
used for the determination of additional details such as boundaries of fields
houses and other properties is known as cadastral surveying.

31. Calculate the least count of a vernier, if 'x' is the smallest division of the main scale and 'n' is the number of divisions on the vernier?

x/n

32. Convert 1 foot and 1 yard?

1 foot = 12 inches and 1 yard = 3 feet

33. Illustrate about Archaeological
survey and City survey?

Archaeological survey is conducted for
unearthing relies of antiquity, while city surveys used for laying out plots
and constructing streets, water supply systems and sewers.

**Note:**
In India, survey of India department conducts the geodetic survey, and in
surveying the relative positions of points are located by measuring at least 2
points. The degree of precision required in survey work depends on the purpose
of survey. The principle of formation of a diagonal scale is based on the principle
of similar triangles. extended vernier is used in Abney level and the
astronomical sextant. 10 seconds is the least count of the vernier used in
Abney level. The effects of systematic errors are cumulative and can be
eliminated. The shape of earth is like a oblate spheroid.

34. Define the units in SI system?

In SI system, the units of different
quantities are defined as:

Plane Angle = Radian

Force = Newton

Luminous intensity = Candella

Electric current = Ampere

Solid Angle = Steradian

Power = Watt

Resistance = Ohm

Weight and Force = Newton

Pressure, Stress and Modulus of
elasticity = Pascal

35. Convert 1 degree and 1 grade?

1 degree = π/180
radians and

1 grade = = π/200
radians

36. What is radian?

Radian is the angle between two radii of
a circle which cut off on the circumstances on arc equal in length to the
radius.

37.
Differentiate double vernier and double folded vernier?

In a double vernier, the graduations on
the main scale are figured in both directions from a common zero. In a double
folded vernier, its length is half that of the corresponding double vernier.

38. In surveying, considering the shape
of earth and the planet venus are known as?

Considering shape of earth - Geodetic survey

Planet Venus - Astronomical Survey

39. Can we consider Telescopy as a
method of survey?

No, we can't.

40. Discuss about the parameters of
earth used in surveying?

The equator axis of earth is 42.95 Km
longer as compared to its polar axis and the radius of earth is approximated as
6371 Kms. If the extent of survey is more than 250 Km^{2}, then only
the effect of curvature of earth is taken into account. geological survey is
usd for finding different strata in earth's crust.

41. Define survey?

Survey is the science of making figures
of the earth, measurements on earth's surface and terrain in form of maps.

42. Where is the zero-mean sea level taken in India?

In Calcutta.

43. What is the use of militry survey?

Military survey is used for determining
points of strategic importance of both offensive and defensive.

44. Define cadastral survey?

Cadastral survey is used to collect the
details of boundaries of fields, houses and other properties.

45. Convert 1 nautical mile, 484 square
yard and 10 square chain?

1 nautical mile = 1852 m

484 square yard = 1 square chain

10 square chain = 1 acre

46. Explain the reading of extended
vernier?

In an extended vernier, there are (2n-1)
primary divisions, which are divided into 'n' divisions on the vernier.

47. Define shrinkage factor?

Shrinkage factor can be defined as the
ratio of shrunk length to the true length.

48. The construction of a diagonal scale
depends on which criteria?

Similar triangles

49. Convert 1 are, 100 ares and 8
furlongs?

1 are = 100 m^{2}

100 ares = 1 hector

8 furlongs = 1 mile

50. How many number of base units
available?

Seven base units.

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