Recent

Search This Blog

Theme images by Storman. Powered by Blogger.

Followers

Recent in Sports

Home Ads

Comments

Ads

Random Posts

Investigatory Project in Physics for Class 10

- No comments

PROJECT 1: THE EMISSIVE POWER AND EMISSIVITY

 

Aim:

To study the emissive power and emissivity of a surface for different colours)

 

Materials and apparatus:

(i) Tin cans of same size with their outer surfaces including lids painted with different colours like black, white, red, etc.

(ii) Sensitive thermometer with least count 0.1 °C.

(iii) Stand, water etc.

 

Procedure

The surface area A of a can is determined by measuring its dimension using vernier calipers. Its mass m1 and the mass m2 of water completely filling the can are determined. Specific heat capacity c of the material of the tin is noted from the standard tables. The black coloured tin can is filled with hot water at a temperature above 90 °C. It suspended from a stand. The temperature of water is noted by a thermometer. When its temperature falls to 90°C, a stopwatch is started. Temperatures of water are noted after every 30 seconds. The time-temperature observation is taken till the temperature falls to, say, 70°C. A graph is drawn with temperature θ along the Y-axis and time t along the X-axis.

From the graph the rate of cooling at a temperature θ = dθ/dt = AB/BC, is determined.

Quantity of heat lost in one second by the tin can and water at a given temperature θ is calculated by the equation,

Q = (m1c1 + m2c2)(dθ/dt)θ

The emissive power e is calculated from the relation, e = Q/A.

The experiment is repeated for the tin can of different colours.

Emissivity of a surface of for a given colour = (emissive power of the surface for the given colour)/ (emissive power of the black surface)

 

PROJECT 2: THE THERMOELECTRIC THERMOMETER

 

Aim:

To construct a thermoelectric thermometer using copper and iron and to calibrate it using digital multimeter

 

Materials and Apparatus:

(i) Copper and iron wires

(ii) Digital multimeter with low voltage range

(iii) Thermometer

(iv) Two beakers containing melting ice

 

Procedure:

To construct a thermoelectric thermometer, two dissimilar metal wires, Cu and Fe, are joined together to form a thermocouple. A digital multimeter V at the low voltage range is connected as shown in the figure. The wires should not touch each other except at their ends.

Both the junction of the thermocouple are kept in melting ice at 0°C taken in two beakers. The reading of the voltmeter is taken. It will be zero. One of the beakers containing the ice is heated. The junction of the couple in this beakers is the hot junction. The temperature of the hot junction is kept at 10°C, 20°C, ... 100°C and the corresponding voltmeter readings are noted.

A calibration curve is drawn with thermo-emf V in mV along the Y-axis and temperature of hot junction θ in °C along the X-axis.

To find the unknown temperature of a bath, the hot junction is kept immersed in the bath and the voltmeter reading is noted. From the calibration curve, the unknown temperature can be determined.

 

PROJECT 3: THE HOT WIRE AMMETER

 

Aim:

To construct a hot wire ammeter, calibrate it and measures the current in a circuit (both ac and dc)

 

Material and Apparatus:

(i) A uniform resistance wire

(ii) Helical spring

(iii) A step down transformer

(iv) A plug and wire

(v) dc source (battery eliminator)

(vi) Wooden board

(vii) Long screws

(viii) Thin flat straight pointed strip with holes at flat end and the mid-point

(ix) A card-board cut in the shape of a protractor.

 

Procedure

Two screws A and B are fixed at a distance of about 20 cm apart on a wooden board kept horizontally. A resistance wire is kept stretched and firmly tied to A and B. The ends of the wire are connected to two terminals T1 and T2 using connecting wires. A third screw C is fixed on the board along the perpendicular bisector of AB. A helical spring S is stretch between the centre O of the string and the screw C. One end of the pointer is fixed to the end of the spring at O by slipping the end of the spring through the hole in the pointer. The pointer is pivoted at its centre H. The pointer is so pivoted that it turn from the left to the right on the circular scale as the string is pulled by the spring. The extreme left position of the pointer is marked as zero on the scale.

When current is passed through the wire, the wire heat up and expands linearly. Since it is pulled by the spring, it sags and the pointer moves over the scale.

To calibrate the scale, the dc source is connected in series with a rheostat, dc ammeter and a key between T1 and T2. Using known currents calibrate the scale. (The current should be sufficiently large to get appreciable deflection of the pointer). The ac from the main (230 V) is stepped down by a low voltage step down transformer. To measure the unknown current of ac, it is connected in series with the terminals T1 and T2 through a rheostat. The reading of the pointer on the scale gives the rms value of the current.

 

PROJECT 4: THE ELASTIC HYSTERESIS

 

Aim:

To study the hysteresis of rubber

 

Material and apparatus required :

A long rubber band in the form of a loop, stand, weight hanger, slotted weights, metre scale, thin long pointer etc.

 

Procedure

The rubber band R which is in the form of a loop is suspended from a stand. The weight hanger with a dead weight w0 is suspended from the loop by slipping the hook of the weight hanger on to the lower end of the loop. The pointer P is fixed horizontally to the upper end of the weight hanger using plasticine (a type of gum). The metre scale S is fixed vertically such that the pointer is just infront of the scale readings.

The initial reading r0 of the pointer is noted with the dead weight w0. A slotted weight m gwt is placed on the dead weight. The reading r1 of the pointer is taken again. The difference in readings r1 – r0 gives the extension e for a load M = 1m. Similarly the extensions e for the loads M = 2m, 3m, 4m…… are noted.

The extensions for the loads M = 1m, 2m, 3m, 4m,….. are noted as the loads are taken one by one from the dead load during unloading also.

A graph is drawn with extension e (cm) along the Y-axis and the load M (gwt) along the X-axis. A graph (cm) as shown in the figure is obtained.

It is seen that the extension-load graph during loading does not coincide with that during unloading. This is elastic hysteresis.

 

Result:

The elastic hysteresis loop is drawn.

Investigatory Project on Viscosity

- No comments

Investigatory Project on Viscosity

Aim:


Comparison of viscosities of different liquid by rising bubble method


Materials and Apparatus:


(i) a tall glass jar (measuring jar)

(ii) a large flask

(iii) a funnel

(iv) a clean narrow capillary tube (drawn tube)

(v) glass tubes

(vi) rubber tubes

(vii) pinch-cock

(viii) different transparent liquids (eg: water, clear kerosene oil, sodium chloride solution, dilute copper sulphate solution etc)

(ix) stopwatch etc.


Theory:


When an air bubble of radius r moves up through a liquid of viscosity η with a terminal velocity v, then,


(4⁄3) πr3ρg + 6πrηv = (4⁄3) πr3dg


Where ρ = density of air, d = density of the liquid

(Neglecting ρ the density of air)


But v = s/t ; 

η = 2r2dgt/s


If the radius r of the bubble and depth s of the liquid through which the bubble rises up are constants,

η dt

η1 : η2 : η3 : … = d1t1 : d2t2 : d3t3 : …


Procedure:


Experimental setup is as shown in the figure. Water is taken in the flask. The flask is fitted with a two-holed cork. A long glass tube and a short glass tube are introduced through the cork. The lower of the long tube is dipped in the water. The upper end of it is connected to a funnel by means of a short rubber tube. The rubber tube is closed with a pinch-cock. Water is taken in the funnel. The lower end of the short glass tube should not touch the water surface. Its upper end is connected to the capillary tube using a long rubber tube. The capillary tube is kept vertically inside the liquid taken in the glass jar.


The densities of the liquids are measured using a Hare’s apparatus, if they are not known. Pour the liquid ‘l’ of density d1 in the jar. The mouth of the capillary tube should be sufficiently deep in the liquid. The depth of immersion of the capillary tube is marked on it.


The pinch-cock is gradually opened and the water in the funnel is allowed to trickle down slowly into the flask. Then the pressure of the air within the flask is slowly increased. Bubbles of air are formed in the liquid at the end of the capillary tube. These bubbles rise up through the liquid.


Time (t1) of rise of the air bubble through the liquid is noted using a stop-watch. d1t1 is calculated.


The experiment is repeated with the other liquids 2,3,… keeping the mouth of the capillary tube at the same depth.


Observations


To find the densities of the liquid


Comparison of viscosities

η1 : η2 : η3 = d1t1 : d2t2 : d3t3

Investigatory Project in Physics

- No comments


PROJECT 1 : THE DAMPED OSCILLATIONS

 

Aim:

Study of damping of a bar pendulum by fixing card board pieces of different sizes at its bottom

 

Materials and Apparatus:

(1) A metre scale as compound bar pendulum

(2) Card board discs (square, rectangular or circular discs) of different size

(3) Stop-watch, stand etc

 

Procedure:

A small hole is drilled near one of the end of the metre scale. A long needle is passed through the hole. The size of the needle should be such that the scale should oscillate freely about the needle. The needle is firmly clamped horizontally on a suitable stand. It is kept near the edge of a table so that the metre scale can oscillate infront of the edge. A card board disc of area ‘a’ is cut off. It is fixed near the bottom of the metre scale in such a way that when the scale oscillates, the plane of the disc is perpendicular to the direction of oscillation.

The equilibrium position of the scale is marked on the edge of the table. A small amplitude of oscillation is also marked. The bar pendulum is pulled upto this mark and released. Simultaneously the stop watch is started. When the pendulum comes to rest, the total time ‘t’ of oscillations is noted. The experiment is repeated a number of times and the average value of ‘t’ is taken. The experiment is repeated for card board discs of different area a keeping their centre of mass at the same position on the scale. A graph is drawn with the time ‘t’ of oscillation and the area ‘a’ of the discs.

 

PROJECT 2 : THE INERTIAL BALANCE

 

Aim:

To construct an inertial balance, calibrate and find the inertial mass of a body.

 

Material required:

(1) A hacksaw blade of length 30 to 50 cm

(2) A light scale pan

(3) A set of known weights and the body of unknown mass

(4) Stopwatch, knitting needle

 

Procedure:

The hacksaw blade is clamped horizontally with its flat sin lace vertically over table. A knitting needle is kept vertically infront of the free end of the blade. A scale pan of negligible weight is glued at the flat surface of the hack-saw blade near the free end.

A suitable mass m, say 20 g, is placed in the pan. The end of the hacksaw blade is displaced horizontally and released. The blade vibrates horizontally. So the acceleration due to gravity does not affect the oscillations. The period of oscillation T is determined. The experiment is repeated with mass 2m, 3m, ... in the pan.

T = 2π(m/k), where k is the force constant of the blade.

T2/m = a constant

A graph is drawn with T2 along the Y-axis and m along the X-axis. This is the calibration curve.

The body of unknown mass ‘x’ is placed in the pan and the period of oscillation ‘T' is determined. The inertial mass x of the body is noted from the graph. (The mass in should be selected depending on the length, width and thickness of the hacksaw blade so that the period may be determined accurately)


To find m and T2


PROJECT 3 : THE HELICAL SPRING

 

Aim:

To study the variation of spring constant k with its diameter by making helical springs of different diameters using thick copper or steel wire.

 

Materials and apparatus

(i) Thick copper or steel wire

(ii) Stand

(iii) Stopwatch

(iv) Weight hanger and slotted weights

(v) Cylindrical tubes of different diameters

 

Procedure

Helical springs of different diameters are made by winding the copper wire over cylindrical tubes of different diameters. The diameter D of the spring is determined by measuring the diameter of the tube using a vernier calipers. The spring constant k is determined by load - extension method. The reading are tabulated. A graph is drawn connecting k and D.

 

PROJECT 4 : THE CLEANSING EFFECT OF DETERGENT

 

Aim:

To study the comparative cleansing effect of different detergents by the study of capillary rise

 

Materials and apparatus:

(1) A capillary tube of uniform bore

(2) Beaker

(3) Stand

(4) Common balance

(5) Different detergents

(6) One holed cork

(7) Divider, scale etc

 

Theory

For a give capillary tube, the capillary rise of liquid in the tube is directly proportional to the surface tension of the liquid. The presence of the detergent in water reduces surface tension. For equally concentrated solution of different detergent in water, capillary rise is Minimum for the best detergent and maximum lot worst detergent.

 

Procedure

Equal masses of different detergents are taken by finding the mass of the detergent using physical balance. Equal volumes of distilled water are taken in different beakers. The detergents are dissolved in water. Thus different beakers contain different detergents having the same concentration. The beakers are labelled as A, B, C,…..

The capillary tube is cleaned first with an acid, then with an alkali and finally with water. It is then passed through a hole in a cork and is arranged vertically by suitable stand with its lower end dipping in the solution contained in the beaker marked A. The solution rises in the capillary tube up to certain height. Using a divider and a metre scale, the height h of the solution in the tube from the surface of the solution in the beaker is measured. The experiment is repeated with the other solutions also. The capillary tube should be thoroughly cleaned and rinsed in distilled water before dipping in fresh detergent solutions.

 

Observation

Result

The different detergents in the order of cleaning power are as follows.

(1)..... (2)..... (3)..... (4).....

 

PROJECT 5 : THE COEFFICIENT OF FRICTION

 

Aim:

To find the relationship between forces of static friction and normal reaction by plotting a suitable graph and to find the coefficient of friction between a wooden block and horizontal surface

 

Materials and Apparatus

A wooden block, a smooth frictionless pulley, a table with a smooth horizontal top surface, scale pan, weight box, string etc

 

Procedure

The weight of the wooden block and that of the scale pan are determined using a spring balance. One end of a light inextensible string is tied to the hook fixed to the wooden block. The other end of the string passes over the pulley and carries the scale pan which hangs freely in air. Ensure that the string between the block and the pulley is horizontal.

Some weights are placed in the scale pan. The weight in scale pan is so adjusted that on gently tapping the table, the wooden block just begins to slide. The weight of the scale pan together with the weight in the pan gives the force of limiting friction Fms. The normal reaction R is given by the weight W of the wooden block. The coefficient of static friction is calculated by the equation,

µ = Fms/W

A known weight P is placed on the wooden block. Now the normal reaction R becomes (W + P). The limiting friction Fms, is determined as explained above. The co-efficient of static friction is calculated by the equation,

µ = Fms /(W + P)

The experiment is repeated for different weights on the block. The mean value of coefficient of friction µ is calculated. A graph is drawn with limiting friction Fms along the y-axis and normal reaction R along the x-axis. The graph is a straight line. The slope of line is a measure of the coefficient of friction between the surfaces of the block and the table.

Observation

Weight of the block = W = ……g

Weight of the scale pan = w = ……g

Results

(i) The graph connecting limiting friction and the normal reaction is a straight line.

(ii) Coefficient of static friction µ between the block and the table

(a) by calculation, µ = ….

(b) from the graph µ = ….


Note: Effect of lubricants on friction can be studied by performing the above experiment with lubricant between the surface of the block and the table in contact.

Investigatory Project on Diseases of Crop Plants

- No comments

A Study of Diseases of Crop Plants of a Particular Area

Introduction

 

The plant diseases may be defined as any abnormal physiological or morphological condition which causes a marked disturbance in the plants as a whole or any part of it, induced by certain external agencies. The most important agents which lead to diseases are unfavorable environmental conditions, deficiency of some elements, pathogens etc. Pathogens are the organisms which cause diseases. The various plant diseases delimit the normal growth of crop plants.


Diseases of crop plants will negatively affect the fanning community and ultimately the economy of the society. Hence the study of crop diseases is very important. There are different techniques available for the identification, curing and controlling of these diseases. Materials and Methods

 

Materials and Methods

 

Tag, Microscope, Hand lens, knife, scissors, blade etc was collected. Demarcated a local area (name of the place) for the collection and study of diseases of crop plants. The collection trips were arranged in different times of the year. Five diseased crop plants were collected carefully and brought to the laboratory.

With the help of hand lens specimens were examined. The observed symptoms were noted down. Then took thin sections through the affected part of the plant and stained with cotton blue. It was placed on a clean glass slide and mounted in glycerin. The prepared slide of each disease was observed under a compound microscope.

Prepared the herbarium sheets of the major five crop diseases. They were used to obtain information regarding pathogen, symptoms and control measures. Identified the disease and causative organism of each disease, and the symptoms were studied. Control measures for each disease were recommended.

 

Observation and Results

 

The identified diseases, their causative organism, host crop plant, and infected plant part are given in the tabular column.

 

1. Name of the disease – Grey leaf spot of coconut

Causative Organism – Pestalotia Palmarum

Host Plant – Coconut Palm

Infected Plant Part – Leaves

 

2. Name of the disease – Nut fall of arecanut

Causative Organism – Phytophthora arecae

Host Plant – Arecanut Tree

Infected Plant Part – Leaves inflorescence and nuts

 

3. Name of the disease – Blast of paddy

Causative Organism – Pyricularia oryzae

Host Plant – Paddy

Infected Plant Part – Leaves and stem

 

4. Name of the disease – Bunchy top of banana

Causative Organism – Banana virus I

Host Plant – Musa

Infected Plant Part – Leaves and stem

 

5. Name of the disease – Citrus canker

Causative Organism – xanthomonas citri

Host Plant – Citrus

Infected Plant Part – Stem, leaves and fruits


The identified symptoms of crop plants studied are given below.

 

1. Name of the disease - Grey leaf spot of coconut

Symptoms – Yellow leision on the surface of leaves. Later these leisions united to form large necrotic patches.

 

2. Name of the disease - Nut fall of arecanut

Symptoms – Water soaked areas appear on the basal part of the young nuts and leaves. The affected leaves and fruits are subjected to defoliation at an early time.

 

3. Name of the disease - Bunchy top of banana

Symptoms – The leaves of infected plants get clustered or bunched together at the apex forming "bunchy top". Hence the disease name bunchy top. The leaves become brittle, margins may be rolled spirally. The dwarfing and curling o mature leaves.

 

4. Name of the disease - Citrus canker

Symptoms – Leisions appear on the lower surface of leaves then spread to the stem and fruits. Leisions rapture and dead area with raised margins is formed. These dead areas are called Canker. Affected leaves and fruits fall off.

 

5. Name of the disease - Blast of paddy

Symptoms – Appearance of small whitish patches on leaves. They rap-idly enlarge to form spindle shaped areas. Severe infection produces drying out and browning of leaves and presence of "rotten neck" and prevention of filling up of the kernel.

 

Discussions and Conclusions

 

Identified the diseases of crop plants and their causative organisms were studied. Bunchy top of banana was a viral disease Citrus canker was a bacterial disease. Grey leaf spot of coconut, Nut fail of arecanut and Blast of paddy were fungal diseases.

Among these, the fungal disease was disseminated by air. The bacterial disease was spread by mechanical implements, insects, rain water etc. An insect Pentalonia nigro - nervosa disseminated viral disease.


The control measures for viral, bacterial and fungal diseases of crop plants were recommended.


1. The viral diseases can be controlled by

a. Spraying insecticides

b. Removing and burning of diseased plants

 

2. The bacterial disease can be controlled by

a. Removing and burning of diseased plants

b. Growing disease - resistant varieties

 

3. The fungal disease can be controlled by

a. Spraying fungicides

b. Growing disease - resistant varieties.

 

All these diseases cause economic loss. Disease resistant varieties are to be produced to overcome these plant diseases.

 

Viva Questions and Answers

 

1. What is a pathogen?

The organism which causes the diseases

 

2. Name the causative organism of citrus canker

Xanthomonas citri

 

3. What are the symptoms of grey leaf spot of coconut?

Yellow leisions of the surface of leaves, later these patches united to form large necrotic patches.

Investigatory Project on Medicinal Plants

- No comments

A Survey of Medicinal Plants of an Area

Introduction:


The history of medicinal plants is closely associated with the history of Botany. In India, Ayurvedic medicines have been in use for over 3000 years. Records of early civilisation in almost all parts of the world reveal that a great majority of drugs used in modern medicine were in use since ancient times. Practice of Ayurveda involves the application of herbal medications. Charaka is considered as the father of Ayurveda.

 

Thousands of medicinal plants are growing in the world. A close examination of the medicinal plants reveals that only a few are cultivated in gardens. Most of the drugs yielding medicinal plants are growing wild especially in tropical regions. There is a report that the medicinal plants are grown in tribal areas. The present study aims to gather various information on medicinal plants around our locality and to collect and study their medicinal values.

 

Materials and Methods

 

Different habitats from the local area were selected for medicinal plant collection. The materials like tag, vasculum, knife, blade, pruning shears etc. were collected. The field trips were organized at different times of the year. Collect the herbaceous plants and plants with underground stem by using a collecting pick. With the help of pruning shears cut and collected the woody specimens. The collected plants were kept in a vasculum for identification. With the help of reference text books, collected the informations regarding their medicinal properties.

 

Observation and Results

 

1. Ginger

Botanical Name – Zingiber officinale

Useful Part – Rhizome

Used to treat – Stomach problems

 

2. Asparagus

Botanical Name – Asparagus officinalis

Useful Part – Roots

Used to treat – Cutaneous diseases

 

3. Tulsi

Botanical Name – Oscimum sanctum

Useful Part – Leaves

Used to treat – Cough, Fever, Asthma etc

 

4. Sarpagandha

Botanical Name – Rauwolfia serpentina

Useful Part – Roots

Used to treat – Heart diseases

 

5. Asoka tree

Botanical Name – Saraca indica

Useful Part – Bark

Used to treat – Menstrual disorders

 

6. Aloe

Botanical Name – Aloe vera

Useful Part – Leaves

Used to treat – Skin diseases

 

7. Kalmegha

Botanical Name – Andrographis paniculata

Useful Part – All parts

Used to treat – Diabetics

 

8. Indian Sarsaparilla

Botanical Name – Hemidesmus indicus

Useful Part – Roots

Used to treat – Tonic

 

9. Periwinkle

Botanical Name – Catharanthus roseus

Useful Part – All parts

Used to treat – Blood cancer

 

10. Keshnut

Botanical Name – Eclipta alba

Useful Part – Leaves

Used to treat – Hair fall

 

11. Shoe flower

Botanical Name – Hibiscus rosa - sinensis

Useful Part – Leaves

Used to treat – Hair fall

 

12. Neem

Botanical Name – Azadirachta indica

Useful Part – Leaves

Used to treat – Skin diseases

 

13. Drum stick

Botanical Name – Moringa olerifera

Useful Part – Leaves, fruit

Used to treat – Anaemia

 

14. Vasaka

Botanical Name – Adhatoda vasica

Useful Part – Leaves

Used to treat – Cough

 

15. Quinine tree

Botanical Name – Cinchona officinalis

Useful Part – Bark

Used to treat – Malarial fever

 

Discussions and Conclusions

 

In the present study, the medicinal values of collected plants were noted with the help of pharmacognosy text books. The collected plants were classified based on the usage of parts of plants used as medicine.

 

1. Medicines obtained from the bark

 

Ashoka tree (Saraca indica) belongs to the family Caesalpinaceac is a tree. It is effective against various menstrual problems. Quinine tree (Cinchona officinalis) belongs to the family Rubiaceae is a tree. It is effective against malarial fever.

 

2. Medicines obtained from roots and other underground parts.

                       

Ginger (Zingiber officinale) belongs to the family zingiberaceae is a herb. It is effective against stomach disorders. Indian Sarsaparilla (Hemidesmus indicus) belongs to the family Asclepiadaceae, is a shrub. It helps to purify blood.

 

3. Medicines obtained from leaves.

 

Tulsi (Oscimum sanctum) belongs to the family Lamiaceae is a herb. Leaf juice is effective against cough, fever etc.

Keshnut (Eclipta alba) belongs to the family Asteraceae (Compositae) is a herb. It is effective against hair fall.

Neem (Azadirachta indica) belongs to the family Meliaceae is a tree. It is effective against skin diseases.

 

4. Medicines obtained from whole plant body

 

Periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus) belongs to the family Apocynaceae is a herb. It is effective against blood cancer.

Kalmegha (Andrographis paniculata) belongs to the family Acanthaceae is a herb. It is effective against diabetics.

 

Viva Questions and Answers

 

1. Who is considered as the father of Ayurveda?

 

Ans: Charaka

 

2. Name any four medicinal plants.

 

Ans: Tulsi, (Oscimum sanctum), Neem (Azadirachta indica), Kiriyath (Andrographis) and Ashoka (Saraca indica)

 

3. Which disease is treated by using Periwinkle?

 

Ans: Blood cancer.

Investigatory Project on Fruits

- No comments

Investigatory Project - A Survey of different types of Fruits


          

Introduction : The ripened ovary of a flower is called fruit. After fertilization ovary develops into fruits and ovule develops into seeds. The fruits which develop from the ovary are called “true fruits”. Eg. Mango, bean etc. But in some case the fruits develop from other part of the flower except the ovary. They are called "false fruits” or Pseudocarp. Eg. Apple, cashew etc. The fruit wall is called pericarp. In fleshy fruit pericarp has 3 layers epicarp, mesocarp and endocarp. On the basis of origin and development the fruits are classified into three types. The three types of those fruits are simple fruits, aggregate fruits and multiple fruits. The study of fruits and its cultivation is called Pomology, which is a branch of Horticulture.

 

Materials and Methods : The following materials were collected first – bags, scissors, blade, tag and knife. Different local areas were selected for this study. The collection trips were arranged in different times of the year for fruit collection. The collected materials were tagged separately and kept in a bag for further studies. Then identified the plants and assessed the use of each fruit. All the details about the collected fruits were studied with the help of authentic text books.

 

Observation and Results : The collected fruits were observed carefully and identified the different types of fruits and then categorized them accordingly. Uses of each fruits were also recorded separately as follows.

 

1. Mango 

Botanical Name – Mangifera Indica 

Type of Fruit – True of fruit drupe 

Morphology of edible part – Mesocarp


2. Guava 

Botanical Name – Psidium Guayava 

Type of Fruit – True Berry 

Morphology of edible part – Thalamus and Pericarp


3. Tamarind 

Botanical Name – Tamarindus Indica 

Type of Fruit – True Berry 

Morphology of edible part – Seed Covering


4. Papaya 

Botanical Name – Carica Papaya 

Type of Fruit – True Berry 

Morphology of edible part – Mesocarp


5. Pine Apple 

Botanical Name – Ananas Comosus 

Type of Fruit – True Berry 

Morphology of edible part – Fleshy Pericarp


6. Cashew Nut 

Botanical Name – Anacardium Occidentale 

Type of Fruit – False Fruit 

Morphology of edible part – Thalamus


7. Grape 

Botanical Name – Vitis Vinifera 

Type of Fruit – True Fruit 

Morphology of edible part – Mesocarp


8. Banana 

Botanical Name – Musa Paradisiaca 

Type of Fruit – True Fruit 

Morphology of edible part – Mesocarp


9. Tomato 

Botanical Name – Lycopersicon Esculentum 

Type of Fruit – True Fruit 

Morphology of edible part – Mesocarp and Placenta


10. Orange 

Botanical Name – Citrus Aurentium 

Type of Fruit – True Fruit 

Morphology of edible part – Juicy Placental hairs


11. Wild Jack Fruit 

Botanical Name – Artocarpus Hirsuta 

Type of Fruit – True Fruit 

Morphology of edible part – Perianth Lobes


12. Jack Fruit 

Botanical Name – Artocarpus Heterophylla 

Type of Fruit – True Fruit 

Morphology of edible part – Perianth Lobes


13. Apple 

Botanical Name – Pyrus Malus 

Type of Fruit – False Fruit 

Morphology of edible part – Thalamus

 

Discussions and Conclusions : In this study an attempt has been made to study the nature, structure, functions and uses of each fruit. Most of the fruits were seasonal. Types of fruits (True or false), their local names and scientific names were also studied and recorded. The fruit includes berries (Grapes, banana & tomato), hesperidium (Orange), Drupe (Mango), Nut (Anacardium), sorosis (Jackfruit) and etaerio of berries (Custard apple).

The edible parts of fruits were different in different fruits. In mango and custard apple, mesocarp were edible. In apple, fleshy thalamus were edible. The present study of different fruits had revealed the fact that the diversity of nature was directly reflected in these edible fruits.

 

Viva Questions about A Survey of different types of Fruits

 

1. Distinguish between true fruits and false fruits.


Ans: Fruits that develop from the ovary are called true fruits and fruits that develop from any part of flower except ovary are called false fruit.


2. Name a false fruit


Ans: Apple


3. Name a dry indehiscent fruit


Ans: Cashew nut