Investigatory Project on Fruits

Investigatory Project - A Survey of different types of Fruits


          

Introduction : The ripened ovary of a flower is called fruit. After fertilization ovary develops into fruits and ovule develops into seeds. The fruits which develop from the ovary are called “true fruits”. Eg. Mango, bean etc. But in some case the fruits develop from other part of the flower except the ovary. They are called "false fruits” or Pseudocarp. Eg. Apple, cashew etc. The fruit wall is called pericarp. In fleshy fruit pericarp has 3 layers epicarp, mesocarp and endocarp. On the basis of origin and development the fruits are classified into three types. The three types of those fruits are simple fruits, aggregate fruits and multiple fruits. The study of fruits and its cultivation is called Pomology, which is a branch of Horticulture.

 

Materials and Methods : The following materials were collected first – bags, scissors, blade, tag and knife. Different local areas were selected for this study. The collection trips were arranged in different times of the year for fruit collection. The collected materials were tagged separately and kept in a bag for further studies. Then identified the plants and assessed the use of each fruit. All the details about the collected fruits were studied with the help of authentic text books.

 

Observation and Results : The collected fruits were observed carefully and identified the different types of fruits and then categorized them accordingly. Uses of each fruits were also recorded separately as follows.

 

1. Mango 

Botanical Name – Mangifera Indica 

Type of Fruit – True of fruit drupe 

Morphology of edible part – Mesocarp


2. Guava 

Botanical Name – Psidium Guayava 

Type of Fruit – True Berry 

Morphology of edible part – Thalamus and Pericarp


3. Tamarind 

Botanical Name – Tamarindus Indica 

Type of Fruit – True Berry 

Morphology of edible part – Seed Covering


4. Papaya 

Botanical Name – Carica Papaya 

Type of Fruit – True Berry 

Morphology of edible part – Mesocarp


5. Pine Apple 

Botanical Name – Ananas Comosus 

Type of Fruit – True Berry 

Morphology of edible part – Fleshy Pericarp


6. Cashew Nut 

Botanical Name – Anacardium Occidentale 

Type of Fruit – False Fruit 

Morphology of edible part – Thalamus


7. Grape 

Botanical Name – Vitis Vinifera 

Type of Fruit – True Fruit 

Morphology of edible part – Mesocarp


8. Banana 

Botanical Name – Musa Paradisiaca 

Type of Fruit – True Fruit 

Morphology of edible part – Mesocarp


9. Tomato 

Botanical Name – Lycopersicon Esculentum 

Type of Fruit – True Fruit 

Morphology of edible part – Mesocarp and Placenta


10. Orange 

Botanical Name – Citrus Aurentium 

Type of Fruit – True Fruit 

Morphology of edible part – Juicy Placental hairs


11. Wild Jack Fruit 

Botanical Name – Artocarpus Hirsuta 

Type of Fruit – True Fruit 

Morphology of edible part – Perianth Lobes


12. Jack Fruit 

Botanical Name – Artocarpus Heterophylla 

Type of Fruit – True Fruit 

Morphology of edible part – Perianth Lobes


13. Apple 

Botanical Name – Pyrus Malus 

Type of Fruit – False Fruit 

Morphology of edible part – Thalamus

 

Discussions and Conclusions : In this study an attempt has been made to study the nature, structure, functions and uses of each fruit. Most of the fruits were seasonal. Types of fruits (True or false), their local names and scientific names were also studied and recorded. The fruit includes berries (Grapes, banana & tomato), hesperidium (Orange), Drupe (Mango), Nut (Anacardium), sorosis (Jackfruit) and etaerio of berries (Custard apple).

The edible parts of fruits were different in different fruits. In mango and custard apple, mesocarp were edible. In apple, fleshy thalamus were edible. The present study of different fruits had revealed the fact that the diversity of nature was directly reflected in these edible fruits.

 

Viva Questions about A Survey of different types of Fruits

 

1. Distinguish between true fruits and false fruits.


Ans: Fruits that develop from the ovary are called true fruits and fruits that develop from any part of flower except ovary are called false fruit.


2. Name a false fruit


Ans: Apple


3. Name a dry indehiscent fruit


Ans: Cashew nut

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