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Investigatory Project on Ecosystem

 

Investigatory Project on Ecosystem

Introduction

 

The term 'Ecosystem' expresses the relationship between a biotic community with its abiotic components. Ecosystem is the basic structural and functional unit of ecology. The term 'ecosystem' was coined by A. G. Tansley (1953). The ecosystem has two main structural components. They are biotic components and abiotic components. The biotic components consist of three groups - Producers, consumers and de-composers.

 

Materials and Methods

 

Nets, Herbarium, museum jars, dissection box, glass slides etc were collected. A pond from the local area (name of the place) was selected for the present study. A collection trip was arranged for this purpose. During this visit water samples were collected from the pond. The animals and plants from the pond were collected with the help of net and stored them in museum jars. The collected samples were brought to the laboratory. With the help of a thermometer atmospheric temperature and pond water were measured. Temporary mounts of various micro-organisms from the pond were prepared and identified them with the help of authentic books. The identified specimens were preserved in formalin.

 

Observation and Results

 

The biotic components collected from the pond ecosystem are noted in the table given below.

 

No:

Producers

First order consumers

Second order consumers

Third order consumers

Decomposers

1

Chlamydomonas

Rotifers

Planaria

Large fish

Bacteria

2

Navicula

Amoeba

Hydra

Frog

Bacteria

3

Volvox

Daphnia

Snail

Fresh water snake

Fungus

4

Asterionella

Vorticella

Leech

-

 

5

Microcystis

Actinophaerium

Cyclops

Terapin

 

6

Chara

 

Dragonfly nymph

Pond heron

 

7

Potamogeton

 

Dragonfly nymph

 

 

8

Vallisneria

 

Tad – pole larva of frog

 

 

9

Nymphaea

 

Small fishes

 

 

10

Sagittaria

 

 

 

 

 

The atmospheric temperature and pond water measured is noted below.


Ecosystem – Pond

Atmospheric temperature – 34°C

Water temperature – 28°C

 

Discussions and conclusions

 

The biotic components of a pond ecosystem were collected and studied. The atmospheric temperature and pond water were measured and compared.

 

The primary producers collected from the pond were Chlamydomonas, Navicula, Volvox, Asterionella, Microcystis, Chara, Potamogeton, Vallisneria, Nymphaea and Sagittaria. Of these Chlamydomonas Navicula, Volvox, Asterionella, Microcystis were microscopic producers and Vallisneria, Nymphaea and Sagittaria were rooted hydrophytes.

 

The first order consumers collected and identified were, Rotifers (Producer - Chlamydomonas), Amoeba (Producer - Navicula), Daphnia (Producer - Volvox), Vorticella (Producer - Asterionella) and Actinophaerium (Producer - Microcystis). These consumers were microscopic. The planaria (Chlamydomonas  Rotifers  Planaria), hydra ( Navicula  Amoeba  Hydra), snail (Volvox  Daphnia  Snail), leech (Asterionella  Vorticella  Leech), cyclops (Microcystis  Actinophaerium  Cyclops), dragon fly nymph (Producer - Chara, Potamogeton), tad - pole larva of frog (Producer - Vallisneria) and small fishes (Producer - Nymphaea) were second order consumers. The large fishes, frog, fresh water snake, terrapins and pond heron were third order consumers. The decomposers were bacteria and Fungi.

 

There was an interdependence between pond ecosystem and its components. There was a transfer of food from producers through a chain of different levels of consumers and finally reached the decomposers through death and decay. This transfer of food from the producers through a chain of living beings with repeated eating and being eaten is called as food chain. The food chain were interconnected with each other to form a network called the food web.

 

This project helped us to study various components of pond ecosystem.

 

Viva Voce

 

1. What is an ecosystem?

The structural and functional unit of ecology

 

2. What are the components of an ecosystem?

Biotic components and abiotic components

 

3. Name any two microscopic producers.

Volvox, Chlamydomonas

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