Investigatory Project on Simple Pendulum
Physics Investigatory Project on Simple Pendulum
Aim: To study about the factors upon which the period of oscillation of a simple pendulum depends.
Apparatus:
Simple Pendulum, Bob of different masses, Stop watch, Meter Scale etc.
A simple
pendulum having a metallic bob hanged by a light inextensible string.
The upper portion of the string is passed all the way through a split cork which is clamped
strongly to a stand. The length of the pendulum is the distance between the
point of suspension to the centre of gravity of the bob.
Theory:
The period of
oscillation of a simple pendulum is given by,
T = 2Ï€√(l/g)
Where, l =
length of the pendulum
g = acceleration
due to gravity at the place
Procedure:
1. To study
how the length of the pendulum depends
The
pendulum is suspended from a fixed point. The length of the pendulum is
adjusted to be about 50 cm. The time for 20 oscillations is determined and the
period of oscillation is calculated. The experiment is repeated for different
lengths and in each case the period is calculated.
2. To study
how the amplitude of the pendulum depends
The
experiment is repeated by keeping the length as a constant for different
amplitudes (we prefer small amplitude). For this the edge of the table parallel
to the plane of oscillation of the pendulum is marked at different distances
from the mean position so as to represent different amplitudes. The period of
oscillation is found for different amplitude of oscillations.
3. To study
how the mass of the bob depends
The
experiment is repeated by using bobs of different masses keeping the length of
the pendulum and amplitude constant. The period of oscillation is determined in
each case.
Observations
and Calculations
i. To study
how the length of the pendulum depends
Amplitude
of oscillation = ...........cm
Mass of the
bob = ........g
Trial No: 
Length of the
pendulum 
Time for 20
oscillations 
Period, T = t/20 

1 
2 
Mean(t) 

cm 
s 
s 
s 
s 

1 2 3 4 5 6 





ii. To
study how the amplitude of the pendulum depends
Length of
the pendulum = .......cm
Mass of the
bob = .......g
Trial No: 
Length of the
pendulum 
Time for 20
oscillations 
Period, T = t/20 

1 
2 
Mean(t) 

cm 
s 
s 
s 
s 

1 2 3 4 5 6 
4 8 12 16 18 




iii. To
study how the mass of the bob depends
Length of
the pendulum = .......cm
Amplitude
of oscillation = .......cm
Trial No: 
Mass of the bob 
Time for 20
oscillations 
Period, T = t/20 

1 
2 
Mean(t) 

g 
s 
s 
s 
s 

1 2 3 4 5 6 
4 8 12 16 18 




Report:
It is found
that the period of oscillation of a simple pendulum at a place,
i. depends
on the length of the pendulum
ii. independent
of the amplitude of oscillation
iii. independent of the mass of the bob
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