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Investigatory Project on Economic Importance of Plant Groups

 

A STUDY OF ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF VARIOUS PLANT GROUPS (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, Pteridophytes, Bryophytes, Algae and Fungi)


Introduction

 

The plants provide us food, clothing and shelter, the three primary necessities of man. In addition to these primary necessities, they provide us medicines, vitamins, minerals and several other commercial products. Clothing is fulfilled by fibre - yielding plants. To meet an ever - increasing demand for plants, the application knowledge of Botany has been considered to be of great importance for better utilization of plant products. The present study aims to collect the economically important plants and study their economic importance.

 

Materials and Methods

 

Selected different local areas for plant collection (name of the local area). The materials like Vasculum, pruning shears, scissors, tag, knife etc were collected. The field trips were organised in different time of the year. The collected materials were kept in a vasculum. Identified the plants and assessed the economic value of each plant using reference books.

 

Observation and Results

 

The collected plants were recorded in a tabular column


No:

Common Name

Scientific Name

Morphology of useful parts

Uses

Angiosperms

1

Coconut Palm

Cocos nucifera

Fruits

Food, fibre, oil

2

Pepper

Piper nigrum

Fruits

Spice

3

Cotton

Gossypium herbaceum

Fibre

Cloth

4

Teak

Tectona grandis

Timber

Furniture

5

Jack tree

Artocarpus heterophylla

Timber and fruits

Furniture and food

6

Cashew tree

Anacardium occidentale

Seeds and fruits

Food

7

Tamarind

Tamarindus indica

Fruits

Food

8

Pineapple

Ananas comosus

Fruits

Food

9

Mango tree

Mangifera indica

Fruits

Food

10

Banana plant

Musa paradisiaca

Fruits

Food

11

Guava

Psidium guayava

Fruits

Food

12

Rice

Oryza sativa

Seeds

Food

13

Tulsi

Oscimum sanctum

Leaves

Medicinal

14

Papaya

Carica papaya

Fruits

Medicinal

15

Asparagus

Asparagus officinalis

Root

Medicinal

Gymnosperm

16

Pine tree

Pinus excelsa

Timber

Furniture, turpentine

Pteridophyte

17

Lycopodium (club moss)

Lycopodium clavatum

Entire plant

Medicine

Bryophyte

18

Marchantia

Marchantia palmata

Thallus

Jaundice

Algae

19

Laminaria

Laminaria japonica

Thallus

Medicine

Fungi

20

Mushroom

Morchella esculenta

Basidiocarp

Food

 

Discussions and Conclusions

 

In the present study, the economic importance of collected plant groups such as Angiosperms, Gymnosperm, Pteridophyte, Bryophyte, AIgae and Fungi were noted. The economic values of Angiosperms were very high compared with the other plant groups.

 

Viva Questions and Answers

 

1. What is the botanical name of Tulsi?

Oscimum sanctum

 

2. Which is the useful part of Mushroom?

Basidiocarp

 

3. What is the use of Marchantia?

Treatment of Jaundice

 

References

 

1. Kochhar. S. L., Economic Botany in the Tropics. Macmillan India Limited, New Delhi.

2. Pandey. B. P., Economic Botany, S. Chand Company, New Delhi

3. Albert F. Hill, Economic Botany, TATA Mc. Graw Hill Publishing Company Ltd.

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