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Investigatory Project on Plants based on their Habitat

A SURVEY OF PLANTS BASED ON THEIR HABITATS (Hydrophytes, Xerophytes, Mesophytes, Epiphytes etc..)


Introduction

 

The natural locality of an organism is called habitat. It refers to a relatively large area (Forest, Pond, Desert). The habitat together with the functions form the ecological niche of the species.

 

There are many types of habitat seen in this world, each having its own environmental conditions. Plants existing in different habitats are having different adaptations. Plants adapted to a particular habitat are associated together to form an ecological group. Based on the water content of their habitat the plants are classified into four major ecological group. They are Hydrophytes, Xerophytes, Mesophytes and Epiphytes.

 

Materials and Methods

 

Hand lens, watch glass, microscope, knife, scissors were collected. Various habitats from the local area (name of the place) was selected for the present study. The collection trips were arranged in different times of the year.

 

Euphorbia, Leucas, Cactus, Cleome were collected from the land area. Hydrilla and Utricularia were collected from a pond. Vanda was collected from the tree trunk. The collected plants from various habitats were brought to the laboratory and their morphological and anatomical adaptations were studied with the help of text books.

 

Observation and Results

 

The plants collected from various habitats and their adaptations are given in the tabular column.

 

No:

Name of Plant

Habitat

Type

Morphological adaptations

Anatomical Adaptations

1

Utricularia

Pond

Hydrophyte

Absence of root cap,

Adventitious roots, Stem long,

Slender Utricular leaf segments modified in bladders.

Absence of cuticle,

Aerenchyma cortex,

Poorly developed vascular tissue

2

Hydrilla

3

Euphorbia

Field

Xerphyte

Well developed root system,

Stem is fleshy,

Leaves are caduceus,

Stipules modified into spines,

Water mucous juice present in the plant body,

Euphorbia thirucalli milky latex present

Thick cuticle,

Sclerenchymatous hypodermis

Sunken stomata

4

Cactus

5

Leucas

Meadow

Mesophyte

Well developed root system,

The stem is solid,

The leaves are thin

Presence of moderate cuticle,

Stomata in both surfaces,

Well developed Vascular system

6

Cleome

7

Vanda

Tree trunk

Epiphyte

Leaves are leathery,

Presence of velamen roots

Multiple epidermis,

Presence of exodermis below the epidermis,

Presence of Velamen tissue.

 

 

Discussions and Conclusions

 

In the present study, various plants in different habitats were studied.

 

The plants growing in water are called hydrophytes. eg. Hydrilla, Utricularia. Xerophytes are plants growing in dry places. Eg. Cactus, Euphorbia thirucalli. Mesophytes are plants growing in mesic conditions i.e., neither sufficient nor in deficient water supply. Eg. Leucas, Cleome. Epiphytes are plants growing on other plants for shelter. Eg. Vanda. These plants were variously adapted morphologically and anatomically to live in different habitats. The present study helped us to collect and study the different plants of various habitat in our locality.


Viva Questions and Answers


1. What is a habitat?

The natural locality of an organism.


2. Name the hydrophyte you have collected.

Hydrilla


3. What is a Xerophyte?

Plants growing in dry habitat.


4. Is Leucas a mesophyte or xerophyte?

Mesophyte.


References:


1. Sharma P. D. , Ecology and Environment, Rastogi Publications, Meerut.

2. Verma P. S. & Agarwal V. K., Environmental Biology, S. Chand and company Ltd.

3. Verma V., A Text Book of Plant Ecology, Emkay Publications, New Delhi.

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